JSON is Not Cool Anymore: Implementing Protocol Buffers in Node.js

JSON is Not Cool Anymore: Implementing Protocol Buffers in Node.js

There’s a better alternative to the ubiquitous JSON as the communication protocol of the web. It’s Protocol Buffers (protobuf). In a nutshell, protobuf offers a more dense format (faster processing) and provides data schemas (enforcement of structure and better compatibility with old code).

Protocol Buffers were introduced by Google. You can read, more about them at the official Protocol Buffers Developer Guide. For something shorter, read 5 Reasons to Use Protocol Buffers Instead of JSON For Your Next Service which will give you a quick overview of the protobuf benefits over JSON.

The purpose of this article is not to highlight why protobufs are better or sell you on the concept. There are many article online that’ll do it for you. The purpose of this article is to show you how you can get started with this format in the Node.js environment.

This article will walk you through a RESTful API implementation of protocol buffers with Node.js, Express.js, Axios and Protobuf.js. The code in this post runs on Node v6.2.0 because it’s written in the cutting-edge ES6/ES2015 version of the JavaScript language. We’ll have a message consisting of two fields text and lang sent as protobuf from the server, decoded and shown on the browser. We’ll also have a button which will send another protobuf message to the server. The source code’s in the GitHub repository azat-co/proto-buffer-api.

JSON is Not Cool Anymore: Implementing Protocol Buffers in Node.js

This will be the structure of our project:


The public folder is where all of our browser assets will reside. We have Axios to make HTTP requests from the browser to server. It’s similar to Superagent or Request. You can also use jQuery to make HTTP requests. If you’re going to use a library other than Axios, just make sure you are submitting data as ArrayBuffer and sending it as application/octet-stream.

The Protobuf.js is the library to work with Google’s Protocol Buffers in JavaScript and Node.js so we’ll need protobuf.js file on the browser. It requires support for long numbers (numbers in JavaScript are limited to 53 bits in size as you know) and there’s a neat library to allow us to work with 64-bit integers called long.js.

The message.proto is the prototype (schema) of the message object which we’ll send from server to browser and back. It looks like this:

message Message {
    required string text = 1;
    required string lang = 2;

Protobuf.js requires one more dependency— bytebuffer.js for the ArrayBuffer data type.

The format is relatively easy to understand. We have two fields text and lang. They re both required fields. The numbers next to the field names is something protocol buffers need for decoding/encoding.

The index.html has minimal HTML which contains libraries includes, <pre> container where we’ll insert the response from the server, the button which triggers sendMessage() (we’ll write it later), and the <script> tag with requests and protobuf code.

    <script src="long.js"></script>
    <script src="bytebuffer.js"></script>
    <script src="protobuf.js"></script>
    <script src="axios.min.js"></script>
    <pre id="content"></pre>
    <button onClick="sendMessage()">send message to server</button>
    <script type="text/javascript">
        // Our requests and Protobuf code

Let’s dive deeper browser JavaScript and implement two requests: a GET request to fetch a message from the server and a POST request to send a message to the server. They both will have to work with protocol buffers.

First of all, we create Message from our prototype file message.proto. In the callback of loadProtoFile we can invoke loadMessage() to make the GET request to the server.

"use strict";
let ProtoBuf = dcodeIO.ProtoBuf
let Message = ProtoBuf
  .loadProtoFile('./message.proto', (err, builder)=>{
    Message = builder.build('Message')

Axios library take as the first argument the URL of the request and as a second the request options. One of the options we must provide is arraybuffer. This will tell the HTTP agent to give us the appropriate data type back. Axios works with promises, so the in then callback, we can get response, log it and decode using Message.decode():

let loadMessage = ()=> {
  axios.get('/api/messages', {responseType: 'arraybuffer'})
    .then(function (response) {
      console.log('Response from the server: ', response)
      let msg = Message.decode(response.data)
      console.log('Decoded message', msg)
      document.getElementById('content').innerText = JSON.stringify(msg, null, 2)
    .catch(function (response) {

The result of the GET request is shown in DevTools in the screenshot below. You can observe that the response’s in application/octet-stream:

JSON is Not Cool Anymore: Implementing Protocol Buffers in Node.js

As for the sending of the protocol buffers to the server, make sure to create object with new Message(data) and then invoke msg.toArrayBuffer(). It’s a good idea to set the Content-Type header to application/octet-stream so server knows the format of the incoming data:

let sendMessage = ()=>{
  let msg = new Message({text: 'yo', lang: 'slang'})
  axios.post('/api/messages', msg.toArrayBuffer(),
      { responseType: 'arraybuffer',
      headers: {'Content-Type': 'application/octet-stream'}}
    ).then(function (response) {
    .catch(function (response) {

The result of POST with the appropriate Content-Type and payload is shown in the screenshot below:

JSON is Not Cool Anymore: Implementing Protocol Buffers in Node.js

We have the front-end done, but it won’t work with our the server code so let’s implement Node/Express code next. First of all, you will want to create the package.json. Feel free to copy this file which has the dependencies:

  "name": "proto-buffer-api",
  "version": "1.0.0",
  "description": "",
  "main": "index.js",
  "scripts": {
    "test": "echo \"Error: no test specified\" && exit 1"
  "author": "Azat Mardan",
  "license": "MIT",
  "dependencies": {
    "express": "^4.13.4",
    "protobufjs": "^5.0.1"

Once you have package.json, you can install the dependencies with npm i. It will install express for building the HTTP server and protobufjs for working with Protocol Buffers on the server.

Let’s implement the server code first. In index.js, we import dependencies, create the express object and apply the static middleware for the public folder:

let path = require('path')
let express = require('express')
let app = express()
let publicFolderName = 'public'

Next, we’ll use an in-memory store to simplify this project. In other words, the data for the GET request will be coming from an array:

let messages = [
  {text: 'hey', lang: 'english'},
  {text: 'isänme', lang: 'tatar'},
  {text: 'hej', lang: 'swedish'}

Typically, you would use body-parser for parsing JSON requests. In order to process the incoming protobuf correctly, we need to parse it as array of buffers. Let’s implement our own custom middleware to parse protobufs and store them in body.raw (the decorator pattern). We need to create body.raw only when the header Content-Type is application/octet-stream and when there’s data (data.length>0):

app.use (function(req, res, next) {
  if (!req.is('application/octet-stream')) return next()
  var data = [] // List of Buffer objects
  req.on('data', function(chunk) {
      data.push(chunk) // Append Buffer object
  req.on('end', function() {
    if (data.length <= 0 ) return next()
    data = Buffer.concat(data) // Make one large Buffer of it
    console.log('Received buffer', data)
    req.raw = data

Now we can create the builder object and “build” Message from our prototype file. We use the same prototype file public/message.proto as our front-end code:

let ProtoBuf = require('protobufjs')
let builder = ProtoBuf.loadProtoFile(
let Message = builder.build('Message')

Now we can implement GET in which we create a new message, encode it and convert to the Buffer type before sending back to the front-end client. Express’s response.send() is staking care of adding the proper ‘Content-Type’. You can use response.end() as well:

app.get('/api/messages', (req, res, next)=>{
  let msg = new Message(messages[Math.round(Math.random()*2)])
  console.log('Encode and decode: ',
  console.log('Buffer we are sending: ', msg.encode().toBuffer())
  // res.end(msg.encode().toBuffer(), 'binary') // alternative
  // res.end(Buffer.from(msg.toArrayBuffer()), 'binary') // alternative

In the POST request handler, we decode from body.raw (it’s populated by the middleware which we defined earlier), and log in the terminal:

app.post('/api/messages', (req, res, next)=>{
  if (req.raw) {
    try {
        // Decode the Message
      var msg = Message.decode(req.raw)
      console.log('Received "%s" in %s', msg.text, msg.lang)
    } catch (err) {
      console.log('Processing failed:', err)
  } else {
    console.log("Not binary data")

app.all('*', (req, res)=>{
  res.status(400).send('Not supported')


If you typed all the code as I have, or copied from my GitHub repository azat-co/proto-buffer-api, you should see on a web page a random message from the server. Then, if you click on the button, you should see “yo” in the terminal /command prompt where your Node.js server is running.

That’s it. We implemented GET and POST to communicate in protocol buffers between Node.js/Express.js and browser JavaScript with Protobuf.js. We used Axios to make HTTP requests from the browser. It allowed us to work with promises and abstract some of the low-level XMLHttpRequest interface for working with binary data.

Google’s using Protocol Buffers for their API. Protobufs in many ways superior to JSON or XML, and with Protobuf.js and this quick tutorial you should be good to start using Protocol Buffers for your RESTful APIs!

Author: Azat

Techies, entrepreneur, 20+ years in tech/IT/software/web development expert: NodeJS, JavaScript, MongoDB, Ruby on Rails, PHP, SQL, HTML, CSS. 500 Startups (batch Fall 2011) alumnus. http://azat.co http://github.com/azat-co

11 thoughts on “JSON is Not Cool Anymore: Implementing Protocol Buffers in Node.js”

  1. It’s a good concise How To article… thanks for the blog post! Although, the title is a bit misleading because Protobufs and JSON serve different purposes. For instance, being able to have a human readable format is the most sensible approach for many use cases, especially if you don’t need to validate against a schema. I don’t want to be too picky, but I recommend you proof read the spelling and fix the typos because it distracts from the text, Azat.

  2. Thank you for this informative writeup on ProtoBufs with Node.js. Like some others, I am very curious as to what is the use case of ProtoBufs over JSON? Is there a definitive scenario you found in some projects that would eliminate JSON as a candidate for message format, and would declare ProtoBufs as the undeniable choice?

  3. JSON + Json schemas are fine for me. I don’t see any valid reason to switch to protobuf or other.

  4. From my personal experience, I would suggest to stay away from protobuf unless you really have a good reason to. Everyone should first read “When Is JSON A Better Fit” section in the linked “5 Reasons to Use Protocol Buffers Instead of JSON For Your Next Service” post. Because there are no nice developer tools available, it is simply not possible to examine your http requests/responses in browsers’ developers tools. It was a huge pain for my team when debugging and troubleshooting applications that used services with protobuf responses.

  5. I’d love to understand more about why you feel Protocol Buffers are better than JSON.

  6. In a real application, it would be better to use body-parser package to retrieve raw request body.

    Also, you can write your protobuf parsing code as middleware as well. Then there will be no difference in your route handlers between json and protobuf, you would work just with response.body whatever it is.

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